• Herpan Syafii Harahap Laboratorium Neurologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Brawijaya, Malang
  • Sri Budhi Rianawati Laboratorium Neurologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Brawijaya, Malang



HIV/AIDS, cognitive function, MMSE, CDT


Background. HIV/AIDS caused cellular immunodeficiency (the depletion of CD4+). This, in turn, raised many complications, such as HIV-associated dementia (HIV-D).Objective. To know the profile of cognitive function of patients of HIV/AIDS tretaed in Dr. Saiful Anwar Malang Hospital.Methods. This was a descriptive study using cross-sectional design. This study was conducted to 41 patients of HIV/AIDS treated in Dr. Saiful Anwar Malang Hospital during January to February 2012 (n=41). The cognitive function was assessed by using Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Clock Drawing Test (CDT) instruments.Results. In MMSE, Number of patients showing total score 0-16 were 9 (21.95%), those showing total score 17-23 were 25 (60.98%), and those showing total score 24-30 were 7 (17.07%) . In CDT, 37 patients showed decrease of cognitive function (CDT<4), the remainder showed normal cognitive function. All of patients showing total score of both MMSE and CDT below normal limit, showed low level of CD4 (< 200 sel/µL). Patients showing normal cognitive function on CDT, also showing the same result on MMSE.Conclusion. Most of patients in this study showed the decrease of cognitive function.


WHO. 2011. Global HIV/AIDS Response: Epidemic update and health sector progress toward Universal Access. Progress Report 2011.

Roos KL, et al. 2005. Principles of Neurologic Infectious Disease. USA: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. p113-30

Sereia AL, et al. Mini mental state examination and evaluation of factors associated with cognitive decline in HIV/AIDS-infected people. Acta Scientarium 2012; 34(2): 193-8

Wilkie FL, et al. Mild Cognitive Impairment and Risk of Mortality in HIV-1 Infection. J Neuropsychiatry and Clin Neurosci 1998; 10:125–32

Schouten J, et al. HIV-1 infection and cognitive impairment in the cART-era: a review. AIDS 2011;25:1-16

Rosenberg PB, Johnston D, Lyketsos CG. A Clinical Approach to Mild Cognitive Impairment. Am J Psychiatry 2006; 163(11): 1884-9

Mittal C, Gorthi CSP, Rohatgi MGS. Early Cognitive Impairment: Role of Clock Drawing Test. MJAFI 2010; 66 : 25-8

Lawler K, et al. Neurocognitive impairment among HIV-positive individuals in Botswana: a pilot study. J International AIDS Society 2010;13:15

Robertson KR, et al. The prevalence and incidence of neurocognitive impairment in the HAART era. AIDS 2007, 21:1915–21

Sacktor N, et al. HIV-associated cognitive impairment before and after the advent of combination therapy. J NeuroVirology 2002; 8: 136-42

Ellis RJ. Evidence-Based Treatment for HIVAssociated Dementia and Cognitive Impairment: Why So Little?. PLOS 2007;2(3):e15

Shojania S, et al. High yield expression and purification of HIV-1 Tat1−72 for structural studies. Journal of Virological Methods 2009;8: 1-7

Block ML, Zecca L, Hong JS. Microglia-mediated neurotoxicity: uncovering the molecular mechanisms. NEUROSCIENCE 2007;8:57-65

Pokdi Fungsi Luhur. 2010. Panduan Pemeriksaan Neurologi dan Neurobehavior. Jakarta: PERDOSSI.




How to Cite

Harahap, H. S., & Rianawati, S. B. (2015). THE PROFILE OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION OF PATIENTS HIV/AIDS IN Dr. SAIFUL ANWAR MALANG HOSPITAL. MNJ (Malang Neurology Journal), 1(1), 1–6.



Research Article