Malang Neurology Journal <div id="__if72ru4sdfsdfrkjahiuyi_once" style="display: none;">Malang Neurology Journal (MNJ) is a continuously published twice a year scientific journal by PERDOSSI (Perhimpunan Dokter Spesialis Saraf Indonesia) - Indonesian Neurological Association branch of Malang cooperated with Study Program of Neurologist, Faculty of Medicine Brawijaya University. It is using review by peer group system. MNJ accepts original research article, review, case report, and readers’ letters related to neurology. </div> <div id="__if72ru4sdfsdfruh7fewui_once" style="display: none;"> </div> <div id="__zsc_once"> <p>Malang Neurology Journal (MNJ) is a continuously published twice a year international scientific journal by PERDOSSI <em>(Perhimpunan Dokter Spesialis Saraf Indonesia Cabang Malang)</em> - <a href="">Indonesian Neurological Association Branch of Malang cooperated with Neurology Residency Program</a>, Faculty of Medicine Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia. It is using review by peer group system. MNJ accepts original research article, review, case report, and letter to Editor related to neurology.</p> <p><strong>MNJ</strong> is accredited by Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia based on <a href="">SK No 23/E/KPT/2019 dated 8th August 2019</a> for five years.</p> <p><strong>MNJ</strong> has been indexed by <a href="">Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)</a>, <a href="">CROSSREF (DOI)</a>, <a href=";hl=en">Google Scholar</a>, <a href="">Microsoft Academic</a>, <a href=";mod=viewjournal&amp;journal=9628">Indonesian Publication Index (IPI)</a>, <a href="">indonesian Scientific Journal Database (ISJD)</a>, <a href="">SINTA</a>, <a href="">GARUDA</a>. MNJ is also under-reviewed by SCOPUS and WEB OF SCIENCE.</p> <p>Citations profile in <a href=";hl=en">Google Scholar</a> on July 2022 :</p> <p>Citations: 223, h-index: 6, index i10: 0 <span class="fs-journal-icv-ibox-title ng-binding ng-scope">ICV 2020: 92.56</span></p> </div> <div id="__hggasdgjhsagd_once" style="display: none;"> </div> en-US Malang Neurology Journal 2407-6724 <div class="right" style="text-align: right;"><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a><br />This work is licensed under a <br /><a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a></div> COMBINATION OF PATHOLOGY OF THE BRAIN AND THE OPTIC NERVE <p>The relevance of assessing the lesion of the visual analyzer with optic disc drusen and the possibility of identifying concomitant pathologies, increases with the introduction of the latest diagnostic techniques.</p><p>In the S. Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery Federal State Institution, Moscow, a patient, 50 years old, complaining of episodic blurred vision. The diagnosis revealed the drusen of the optic nerve head and concomitant congenital neurological pathology. The patient was consulted by a neurosurgeon with the aim of delivering a diagnosis and determining treatment tactics. The diagnosis was made: Arteriovenous malformation of the deep arteries of the sections of the left parietal lobe. After assessing the size of the arteriovenous malformation, its location in the functionally important area of the brain, it was decided to follow up the patient in dynamics.</p><p> </p> Alexandra Safonenko Elena Ioyleva Evgeniya Kabanova Tatiana Seregina Copyright (c) 2022 Malang Neurology Journal 2022-07-06 2022-07-06 8 2 144 146 10.21776/ub.mnj.2022.008.02.14 DYKE-DAVIDOFF-MASSON SYNDROME: MYOCLONIC SEIZURES AND HEMIHYPERTROPHY IN LATE CHILDHOOD: A CASE REPORT <p>Dyke-Davidoff-Masson Syndrome (DDMS) is a rare syndrome characterized with specific clinical and radiological findings due to involvement of the developing brain with cerebral hemiatrophy of one hemisphere. The syndrome was first described from Dyke, Davidoff and Masson in 1933 in a series of nine patients. Syndrome has two forms, congenital and acquired forms and etiological factors vary due to involvement of the brain. Most common clinical symptom are focal or secondary generalized seizures. Hemiparesis, facial asymmetry, intellectual disability, mental retardation, and hemihypertrophy also seen in clinical process. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) DDMS has unique radiological findings. Seizures are commonly refractory to treatment and aim of the treatment is to control seizures and improve mental and intellectual capabilities. Prognosis is good when clinical findings occur after two years old.</p> Halil Ural Aksoy Senem Ayça Celil Yılmaz Muzaffer Polat Copyright (c) 2022 Malang Neurology Journal 2022-07-06 2022-07-06 8 2 147 149 10.21776/ub.mnj.2022.008.02.15 BIOMARKERS AND PROGNOSTIC SCORING IN CEREBRAL MALARIA <p>Malaria remains a public health concern and remain the deadliest in infectious disease in the world. Cerebral malaria is a particularly severe complication of this disease and associated with high mortality. This literature review is made up from 19 literatures consisting of journals, and book. The literature review used data base, and using “cerebral malaria and biomarker, predictor of cerebral malaria and treatment of severe malaria”. The languages for this journal are English and Indonesian. From the collection of literatures in this literature review, severe consists of cerebral malaria, blackwater fever, acute kidney injury, pulmonary edema, electrolyte disturbance, hematology disturbance, and obstetrics emergency resulting from malaria which is postpartum hemorrhage. Cerebral malaria increases the mortality of the patient, so they have to be diagnosed early and treated precisely. Patients with infection of plasmodium falciparum and GCS&lt;11 must be suspected as cerebral malaria. Biomarker examination such as Soluble ICAM-1, Specific muscle’s protein, Angiopoetin-1 and 2, and Plasma microparticles is the most precise way to detect malarial emergency earlier Coma Acidosis Malaria score is also found to be useful in predicting the prognosis in cerebral malaria. Early diagnosis should be made as early as possible to reduce mortality from malaria and its emergencies.</p> Orlando Pikatan Ellen Ferlita Tirtana Kezia Seraphine Wienta Diarsvitri Copyright (c) 2022 Malang Neurology Journal 2022-07-06 2022-07-06 8 2 140 143 10.21776/ub.mnj.2022.008.02.13 BREAST CANCER ASSOCIATED ANTI YO-ANTIBODY MEDIATED PARANEOPLASTIC CEREBELLAR DEGENERATION: CASE SERIES AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE <p>Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) is a rare immune mediated disorder characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia in presence of onconeural antibodies which occurs due to an indirect effect of underlying malignancy i.e. small cell lung cancer (SCLC), breast and gynecologic cancer, and Hodgkin lymphoma. In about 50% of patients neurological manifestation of Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration occurs prior to detection of carcinoma. Anti-Yo Antibody is the commonest antibody present in patients with Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration which is associated with breast carcinoma. We describe 3 female patients with anti YO antibody mediated PCD with breast cancer. One patient had a previous diagnosis of breast cancer with post mastectomy status one year back. Two of them presented with ataxia and on further examination, breast lump was found. All three patients had symmetrical ataxia with one patient had severely debilitating ataxia and was not able to walk unassisted. Magnetic resonance imaging brain showed cerebellar atrophy in two patients while one patient had normal MRI. Anti- YO antibody was strongly positive in all the three patients. All patients were given immunotherapy (corticosteroids in 2, Intravenous immunoglobulin in 1) with 1 patient showed modest improvement These case highlights the need to consider for workup for paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration in female patients presenting with subacute to chronic progressive ataxia, so that the tumors can be detected and treated in early stage with a good outcome. </p> Sanaullah Mudassir Ashok Kumar Neetu Sinha Abhay Ranjan Copyright (c) 2022 Malang Neurology Journal 2022-07-06 2022-07-06 8 2 135 139 10.21776/ub.mnj.2022.008.02.12 AFFECTIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY (ABT): FUNDAMENTAL PRACTICE IN THERAPEUTIC LISTENING AND OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY FOR PRIMARY CARE WORKERS DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC <p><strong>Background:</strong> COVID-19 pandemics have triggered mental health problems in various communities. Primary healthcare workers (PHCW), are at the frontline of COVID-19 crisis, having to deal with infected patients and their families.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To evaluate the efficacy of Affective Behavioral Therapy (ABT) for the treatment and prevention of mental health disorders for PHCW. </p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>PHCW from a primary care unit (PCU) were invited to participate in an ABT group. They answered the Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4) about how they felt before the sessions and after them.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>10 sessions were offered between April and June 2020 and 30 PHCW participated, 22 women and 08 men mean age was 36.8 (SD=9.7) years old. The average number of participants per session was 4.4 (SD=2.2). Pre- and post-intervention PHQ-4 scores showed significant improvement in total score (p &lt; 0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>PHCWs mental health is strategic for the management of the community during crises related to natural crises. The ABT was effective in supporting the mental health of PHCW during the COVID-19 epidemic. Future controlled studies must be conducted in order to further test its efficacy. </p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>COVID-19, mental health, primary care, therapeutic listening, occupational therapy, affective behavioral therapy</p> Ciro Blujus Dos Santos Rohde Márcio Fernando Da Silva Hermano Tavares Copyright (c) 2022 Malang Neurology Journal 2022-07-06 2022-07-06 8 2 77 82 10.21776/ub.mnj.2022.008.02.1 CAN HOMEOPATHY BE A "REMEDY" FOR LOSS OF SMELL AND TASTE IN PATIENTS WITH COVID-19? <p><strong>Background: </strong>Homeopathy is applied as a supportive in the treatment of viral infections and in relieving their symptoms.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To create an awareness that effective remedial results can be obtained by homeopathy in patients with loss of smell and taste in Coronavirus Disease 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A prospective, cohort and randomized study was conducted. The main inclusion criterion was the loss of smell and taste for at least one week. Homeopathic remedies were also applied as supportive therapy. Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used to evaluate the loss of smell and taste perception before and after treatment.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 30 patients, 32.17±10.25 years, were included in the study. The mean pre-treatment VAS-smell perception of the patients was 0.67±1.24, while the mean VAS-taste perception was 2.57±3.01. After the treatment, the mean of VAS-smell perception was 8.67±1.92, while the mean of VAS-taste increased to 9.43±1.22. There was a strong positive correlation between ΔVAS-smell perception and ΔVAS-taste perception (r: 0.563, p: 0.001). There was also a strong negative correlation between ΔVAS-taste perception and the level of ferritin (r: -0.552, p: 0.002).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The present study on the effective improvement via homeopathy treatment in patients with loss of smell and taste in COVID-19 that “has spoiled the taste of life and living” should be supported by further studies.</p> Ulas Serkan Topaloglu Ali Saz Onur Tatar Mustafa Oner Kucuk Esma Eryilmaz-Eren Copyright (c) 2022 Malang Neurology Journal 2022-07-06 2022-07-06 8 2 83 87 10.21776/ub.mnj.2022.008.02.2 ETIOLOGY, DIAGNOSIS, AND MANAGEMENT OF CHILDHOOD MICROCEPHALY: A SINGLE-CENTER RETROSPECTIVE STUDY <p><strong>Background</strong><strong>: </strong>Microcephaly is a condition that causes a reduction in brain volume as well as cognitive and motor impairments. It can be seen alone or in conjunction with a variety of genetic disorders and environmental factors. Microcephaly is still a poorly defined condition, identifying the etiological causes is critical for providing genetic counseling, and preventing potential consequences.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The aim of this study was to assess the etiology, diagnosis, and management of the childhood microcephaly.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>We conducted a retrospective analysis on 50 children with microcephaly (25 males, 25 females) who presented to University of Health Sciences, Ankara Keçiören Training and Research Hospital between 2017-2021.The demographic features of the patients, neuroimaging, clinical and laboratory findings were examined.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The etiology of microcephaly was documented in 76% of all patients. Genetic causes were identified in 16 % of the patients; including Aicardi Goutieres Syndrome,Williams Syndrome , Wolfram Syndrome, Rett Syndrome and Asparagine Synthetase Deficiency. Syndactyly, scoliosis, Poland syndrome, dysmorphic face, alopecia, auricular ear deformities, hearing loss, strabismus, nystagmus, hydronephrosis, single umbilical artery, and cardiac septal defect were detected systemic malformations associated with microcephaly. In sixty percent of the patients, a neuroimaging was performed; results were abnormal in 24% of the patients. The mean follow-up period of the patients was 1.88± 0.6 years. Cognitive impairment was associated with microcephaly in 38% of the cases, and epilepsy in 20%. Of those 28% of the children required special education. One patient was operated by neurosurgeon due to craniosynostosis.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Microcephaly is still a poorly defined condition, identifying the etiological causes is critical for providing genetic counseling, and preventing potential consequences.</p> Deniz Güven Didem Ardıçlı Dilek Sarıcı Copyright (c) 2022 Malang Neurology Journal 2022-07-06 2022-07-06 8 2 88 93 10.21776/ub.mnj.2022.008.02.3 EVALUATION OF TREATMENT OUTCOMES OF VESTIBULAR MIGRAINE PATIENTS <p><strong>Background:</strong> Currently there are several treatment plans for prophylaxis of vestibular migraine, but these treatments are based on physician's observations and there have not been studied on a consensual treatment plan.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Based on diagnostic criteria, we collected vestibular migraine patients and created an individualized treatment plan for 3 months to interpret treatment results.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>In this prospective cross-sectional study, 28 patients with headache and dizziness diagnosed for vestibular migraine were enrolled. Demographics, clinical picture, and treatment results were evaluated for all patients at baseline and after three months follow-up duration. Collected data analyzed by statistical methods in SPSS.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Due to results, all of the patients with vestibular migraine were female and mostly were in the 30 to 50 years old age group. Dizziness, Headache before vestibular symptoms, increased intensity of headache on excretion, intermediate to high migraine intensity, and throbbing pain were the most common symptoms in the patients. The most common drugs used in the treatment were somatriptan, topiramate and Magnesium+Vitamin B6. After 3 months of treatment, duration, intensity, and frequency of migraine and frequency of dizziness episodes were significantly decreased but there was not a significant relationship between treatment plan and dizziness episodes in terms of duration and intensity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Effectiveness of the drugs in decreasing dizziness episodes can be explained by the effect of the drugs in preventing migraine episodes, whereas in recent studies non-pharmocologic treatments have had a significant effect on decreasing dizziness intensity and duration. Using both pharmacologic and non-pharmocologic methods in combination, is recommended for the treatment of the vestibular migraine.</p> Abolfazl Atalu Firouz Amani Aran Nikpay Copyright (c) 2022 Malang Neurology Journal 2022-07-06 2022-07-06 8 2 94 98 10.21776/ub.mnj.2022.008.02.4 KABUKI SYNDROME AND EPILEPSY <p><strong>Background: </strong>Kabuki syndrome is a rare disease. In 2018, a global consensus on diagnostic criteria for Kabuki syndrome (KS) was published, diagnosing KS both with and without molecular genetic confirmation. Neurological symptoms are a major clinical problem in more than 80% of cases. Seizures occur with a frequency of 10% to 40% in Kabuki syndrome. Various degrees of severity of epilepsy in KS have been reported. There are isolated cases of West syndrome in KS worldwide.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To investigate the frequency of epilepsy in KS and the features of West syndrome comorbid with KS, using evidence from reviews and describing the clinical presentation based on the history of a patient with molecularly positive KS.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The study design was a two-centre retrospective observational study. Study subjects were paediatric patients with genetically verified KS. We conducted our own observation of 4 patients with KS and detailed a clinical case of a male patient with West syndrome in KS.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Epilepsy was found in 2 patients. Onset of epilepsy at 1.5 and 20 months of age. Both cases were characterised by a severe course of epilepsy. A rare form of epilepsy in KS, West syndrome, was described in patient M. Initial complaints included first seizures and delay in psychomotor development from 1.5 months of age. The clinical features of West syndrome, an electroencephalographic image, MRI of the brain, and the patient's seizure management were presented.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Epilepsy in KS is not an uncommon clinical symptom that exacerbates the underlying disease. KS in combination with West syndrome exacerbates neurological deficits and leads to a significant delay in psycholinguistic and psychomotor development against a background of low efficacy of medication and differential effects of hormones and ketogenic diet.</p> Marina Zhitomirskaya Galina Treskina Nina Dengina Galina Odinstova Copyright (c) 2022 Malang Neurology Journal 2022-07-06 2022-07-06 8 2 99 103 10.21776/ub.mnj.2022.008.02.5 INDONESIAN PEOPLE RISK FACTORS OF NOCTURIA (TWO OR MORE VOIDS PER NIGHT) OLDER THAN 40 YEARS-OLD <p><strong>Background: </strong>Nocturia is a common urinary system disease.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study aimed to investigate the causes of nocturia in women Indonesian inhabitants aged≥ 40 years.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A stratified sample strategy was used to conduct a randomized cross-sectional study on 562 residents under the age of 40 in Malang City, East Java, Indonesia. A questionnaire was completed, which included socioeconomic demographics, lifestyle characteristics, and clinical history. Each night, nocturia was defined as at least two voids. The chi-squared test was used to determine proportional differences between age and gender groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess gender-related factors. This was determined that P0.05 was statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Data on 562 people aged 61.60 <u>+</u> 9.81 years eligible for statistical analysis at the end, comprising 185 (32.92%) men and 377 (67.08%) women. Overall nocturia prevalence was 31.8% (179/562). It rose significantly with age (P&lt;0.001) and reached &gt;48% in those above the age of 70. In both men and women, nocturia was linked with diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and the overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS) (P0.05). There was no link discovered between nocturia and education, profession, civil status, BMI, female birth history, or the International Prostate Symptom Score.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Nocturia is linked to aging, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, OABSS, and diabetes in Indonesians over the age of 40.</p> Besut Daryanto Athaya Febriantyo Purnomo Taufiq Nur Budaya Seskoati Prayitnaningsih Nadia Artha Dewi Copyright (c) 2022 Malang Neurology Journal 2022-07-06 2022-07-06 8 2 104 108 10.21776/ub.mnj.2022.008.02.6 PROFILE OF CHARACTERISTIC, RISK FACTOR, AND STROKE SEVERITY ON INFARCTION STROKE PATIENTS <p><strong>Background: </strong>Stroke is the second leading cause of death and the third leading cause of morbidity. Therefore, it is important to know which risk factor that most patients have. Stroke can be divided according to its severity using NIHSS, NIHSS itself has strong ability to predict outcomes after stroke</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study’s aim to learn about profile of characteristic, risk factor, and stroke severity on infarction stroke patients in ward Seruni A RSUD Dr. Soetomo from July 2018 – June 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This descriptive observational study’s samples are patients with infarction stroke in ward Seruni A RSUD Dr. Soetomo from July 2018 – June 2019. The observed profile include age, sex, ethnic, family history of vascular disease, history of hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, dyslipidemia, obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and stroke severity.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>From 200 patiens, 55% (110) are 56-70 years old. 61% (122) patients are male. 81 out of 96 are Javanese. 25 out of 135 have family history of vascular disease, 140 out of 194 have hypertension, 69 out of 190 have diabetes, 27 out of 183 have heart disease, 101 out of 174 have dyslipidemia, 62 out of 162 have obesity, 33 out of 82 smoke, 4 out of 63 consume alcohol, and 50 out of 55 are inactive physically. On admission, out of 60 patients, 27 have moderate stroke, 25 minor, and 8 moderate to severe. On discharge, out of 49 patients, 23 have moderate stroke, 20 minor, 3 moderate to severe, and 3 severe.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Infarction stroke patients were mostly male and the peak incidence occur between 56-70 years old. Most patients have histories of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. On admission and discharge, most patients have moderate stroke, followed by mild stroke.</p> Aisyah Rizki Ramadhani Mohammad Saiful Ardhi Subur Prajitno Copyright (c) 2022 Malang Neurology Journal 2022-07-06 2022-07-06 8 2 109 112 10.21776/ub.mnj.2022.008.02.7 THE COMBINATION OF HIGH FAT DIET AND MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE ALTERING ADIPOGENESIS, BRAIN RESISTIN AND SERUM CORTISOL LEVEL IN FEMALE RAT <p><strong>Background</strong>: The prevalence of obesity is increasing tremendously worldwide. Obesity is correlated with the consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) and monosodium glutamate (MSG). Although the effect of MSG or HFD on inflammation has been established, lack of information about the effects of both combination on simultaneous systemic and brain inflammation that can be evaluated from cortisol serum and brain resistin level respectively.</p> <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: This study aimed to investigate the effects of combining HFD and MSG on brain resistin, serum cortisol, lipid profiles, visceral weight, and body weight gain.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Sixteen adult female rats were randomized into 4 groups consist of standard diet; HFD+MSG 0.05 mg/gBW, HFD+MSG 0.2 mg/gBW and HFD+MSG 0.35 mg/gBW. Lipid profiles were measured using automatic biochemical analyzer. Brain resistin and serum cortisol level were determined using enzyme-linked immunoassay.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The groups of HFD+MSG significantly have higher level of brain resistin (p&lt;0.003), serum cortisol (p&lt;0.01), total cholesterol (p&lt;0.003) and visceral fat weight (p&lt;0.05) than control group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The combination of HFD, and MSG generates obesity that led to systemic-brain alteration on inflammation. Further study is necessary to evaluate further the functional impact of both combinations on behavioral profiles.</p> Aris Widayati Dewi Mustika Yhusi Karina Riskawati Agustin Iskandar Nia Kurnianingsih Copyright (c) 2022 Malang Neurology Journal 2022-07-06 2022-07-06 8 2 113 116 10.21776/ub.mnj.2022.008.02.8 NEUROPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CINNAMON ACTIVE COMPOUNDS VIA ACTIVATION OF SIRT1: A MOLECULAR DOCKING APPROACH <p><strong>Background: </strong>Neurodegenerative diseases are the main cause of morbidity and disability in the elderly. SIRT1 activation has been gaining popularity as novel treatment target. Cinnamon is known to possess neuroprotective abilities, however the mechanism in which it protects the brain is still limited.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This research aimed to determine the interaction between several cinnamon active compounds with SIRT1</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>We used <em>in-silico</em> method to determine the molecular interactions between cinnamon main compounds as the ligands to target protein SIRT1. SIRT1 3D structure was retrieved from the Protein Data Bank and 4 ligands (Cinnamaldehyde, Caffeic Acid, Epicatechin, and Trigonelline) structures were obtained from PubChem web server, and we used Resveratrol as positive control ligand. SwissADME, Pyrx, Pymol, and Biovia Discovery Studio software were utilized in this research</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> All four ligands fulfilled Lipinski Rule of 5 criteria therefore they are suitable for oral administration. It was discovered in this study that epicathecin had higher binding affinity than the control ligand Resveratrol and interacted with SIRT1 in the similar amino acid residue as Resveratrol did. The binding pocket interaction between all ligands and SIRT1 are the same.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Epicathecin, as one of the main cinnamon compounds, may possess neuroprotective properties by interacting with SIRT1. We pproposed that further research be implemented to investigate epicathecin biological effects on SIRT1 in vitro or in vivo.</p> Umi Kalsum Husnul Khotimah Nurfaizah Titisari Sulihah Theakirana Firdaus Fitrah Aulia Lisabilla Editya Fukata Happy Kurnia Permatasari Sri Andarini Copyright (c) 2022 Malang Neurology Journal 2022-07-06 2022-07-06 8 2 117 121 10.21776/ub.mnj.2022.008.02.9 Cinnamomum burmannii EXTRACT AMELIORATES HIGH GLUCOSE-INDUCED BRAIN APOPTOSIS IN ZEBRAFISH EMBRYOS THROUGH INHIBITION OF PROCASPASE-9 : IN SILICO AND IN VIVO STUDY <p><strong>Background:</strong> Brain is an organ that is prone to oxidative stress and subsequent apoptosis due to high aerobic metabolism and relatively low antioxidants, especially under hyperglycemic condition. <em>Cinnamomum burmanii</em> (CB) is a species that is abundant in Indonesia, therefore it is of special concern for researchers to identify the anti-apoptotic effect of CB.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study was initiated to determine the effect of CB extract on the inhibition of brain apoptosis in zebrafish embryos exposed to high glucose and to investigate its anti-apoptosis mechanism by molecular docking approach.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Molecular docking was conducted to determine the interaction between several CB extracts main constituents with target protein procaspase-9, compared to control ligand Saxagliptin. Zebrafish embryos were used to assess the effect of 4% glucose exposure and three doses of CB extract treatment (1.25, 5, and 10 µg/ml) on apoptosis in brain region. High-glucose condition in zebrafish embryo was confirmed with overexpression of Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). Apoptosis was evaluated by performing acridine orange (AO) staining and quantified by ImageJ software.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Molecular docking study indicated that main CB compounds, namely epicatechin, displayed stronger molecular interactions with procaspase-9 compared to control ligand Saxagliptin. There were increased numbers of apoptotic cells seen around brain region in glucose-treated group. Meanwhile, supplementation of CB extract at dose of 10 µg/ml resulted in decreased amount of apoptotic cells in brain region.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The results suggest that CB extract protects from hyperglycemic-induced apoptosis in zebrafish embryos brain by modulating procaspase-9.</p> Umi Kalsum Husnul Khotimah Theakirana Firdaus Editya Fukata Nurfaizah Titisari Sulihah Fitrah Aulia Lisabilla Happy Kurnia Permatasari Sri Andarini Copyright (c) 2022 Malang Neurology Journal 2022-07-06 2022-07-06 8 2 122 128 10.21776/ub.mnj.2022.008.02.10 LIGHT EXPOSURE’S EFFECTS ON INACTIVE STATE DURATION AND SLEEP LATENCY IN ZEBRAFISH (DANIO RERIO) LARVAE INSOMNIA MODEL <p><strong>Background: </strong>Insomnia is defined as difficulty falling or staying asleep or a sleep state that cannot restore the body's condition. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a vertebrate model that has been extensively studied to study sleep and neurological disorders. One of the most widely used methods to examine the effect of the light-dark cycle on the circadian system is by exposing animals and humans to pulse wave light.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To see the effect of light exposure on zebrafish larvae by looking at inactive state duration and sleep latency in zebrafish <em>(Danio rerio)</em> larvae insomnia model.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This study used four groups of zebrafish larvae i.e : (1) normal group (2) minutes of light exposure and 2 minutes off (2/2)), (3) Four minutes of light exposure and 1 minute off (4/1), and (4) 24 hours on (24/0). Observation of larval movement was carried out on 5, 6, and 7 dpf (day post fertilization). Observation time was 30 minutes before and after turned off of light exposure.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>There were significant differences on days 5, 6, and 7 between the normal group and the three light treatment groups on inactive state duration and sleep latency in dark and light conditions with p-values (p&lt;0.05) and (p&lt; 0.031), but there was no significant difference among groups of light exposure 2 minutes on 2 minutes off, 4 minutes on 1 minute off, and 24 hours on. The 24-hour on treatment showed the most inactive state duration among the light treatments, while the sleep latency was found in the 24-hour treatment.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Light treatment of 2 minutes on 2 minutes off, 4 minutes on 1 minute off, and 24 hours on can cause insomnia, but the most substantial insomnia effect is obtained from the 24-hour treatment.</p> Zamroni Afif Mochammad Istiadjid Eddy Santoso Husnul Khotimah Irawan Satriotomo Edi Widjajanto Masruroh Rahayu Shahdevi Nandar Kurniawan Dheka Sapti Iskandar Annisatul Hakimah Syafiatul Azizah Nurvia Andriani Kartika Agustina Copyright (c) 2022 Malang Neurology Journal 2022-07-06 2022-07-06 8 2 129 134 10.21776/ub.mnj.2022.008.02.11 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLINICAL FINDINGS OF CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME WITH ENMG AND USG WRIST RESULT <p><strong>Background:</strong> Carpal tunnel syndrome is symptomatic compression neuropathy of median nerve in carpal tunnel on wrist causes functional decreased in that area. CTS is diagnosed from clinical, physical examination, also from ENMG and USG wrist. This research aims to know about CTS characteristics and the relationship between clinical findings of CTS with ENMG and USG wrist results.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study aims to determine whether there is a relationship between the clinical findings of patients diagnosed with CTS and the results of ENMG and wrist ultrasound at the Neurology Polyclinic of Saiful Anwar Hospital, Malang.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This research was descriptive observational. Data were collected from anamnesis and physical examination at Neurology Polyclinic Saiful Anwar Malang Hospital (RSSA) from April to December 2017, then examined by ENMG and USG wrist at RSSA. There are 27 patients suspected of CTS who meet inclusion and exclusion criteria.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> From 9 months (April-December 2017) found 27 patients suspected CTS, about 19 patients (70,37%) were female and 7 patients (19,63%) were male. The majority of the age group is 25-65 years old (66,67%). Most of the occupations were housewives (48,15%). Patients most came with chief complaint of tingling (88,89%) with positive tinnel sign (77,78%), and most concomitant diseases were hypertension (48,15%). The ENMG results confirmed CTS about 92,59%, compared to the USG that confirmed CTS about 85,19%. Statistical analysis with Pearson Chi-Square test showed no relationship between clinical findings of CTS (Tinnel, Phalen, Counter Phalen, Flick test) with ENMG and USG wrist results.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This research concluded no relationship between clinical findings of CTS with ENMG and USG wrist results.</p> Masruroh Rahayu Shahdevi Nandar Kurniawan Neila Raisa Farida Widyastuti Copyright (c) 2022 Malang Neurology Journal 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 8 2 150 152 10.21776/ub.mnj.2022.008.02.16