• Shahdevi Nandar Kurniawan Laboratorium Neurologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Brawijaya, Malang


Ca2 , endoplasmic reticulum, homeostasis


Ca2+ signaling functions to regulate many cellular processes. Dynamics of Ca2+ signaling or homeostasis is regulated by the interaction between ON and OFF reactions that control Ca2+ flux in both the plasma membrane and internal organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria. External stimuli activate the ON reactions, which include Ca2+ into the cytoplasm either through channels in the plasma membrane or from internal storage like in ER. Most of the cells utilize both channels/sources, but there area few cells using an external or internal source to control certain processes. Most of the Ca entering the cytoplasm adsorbed to the buffer, while a smaller part activate effect or to stimulate cellular processes. Reaction OFF is pumping of cytoplasmic Ca2+ using a combination mechanism of mitochondrial and others. Changes in Ca2+ signal has been detected in various tissues isolated from animals induced into diabetes as well as patients with diabetes. Ca2+ signal interference is also found in sensory neurons of experimental animals with diabetes. Ca2+ signaling is one of the main signaling systems in the cell.


Krebs, Joachim. Calcium Biochemistry, in Encyclopedia of Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine. Edited by Robert A. Meyers. 2nd Ed. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. 2004.p133-70.

Kumar V, Abbas AK, Fausto N and Mitchell R. Cell Injury, Cell Death,and Adaptations in Robbins Basic Pathology. Saunders/Elsevier. 8th Ed. 2007. p1-30.

Fernyhough, P and Calcutt, NA. Abnormal calcium homeostasis in peripheral neuropathies. Cell Calcium. 2010;47(2):130-9.

Maria-Luisa Lazo de la Vega-Monroy and Cristina Fernandez-Mejia. Beta-Cell Function and Failure in Type 1 Diabetes in Type 1 Diabetes-Pathogenesis, Genetics and Immunotherapy edited by David Wagner. Published by InTech. 2011.p93-126.

Berridge, MJ. Module 2 Cell Signalling Pathways dalam Cell Signalling Biology, Portland Press Limited. 2009. Hlm.1-118.

Alberts, Bruce. Mechanisms of Cell Communication, in Molecular Biology of The Cell, 5th ed.,Garland Science, Taylor and Francis Group. 2008. Hlm.879-964.

Kuhn S, Bussemer J, Chigri F, Vothknecht UC.Calcium depletion and calmodulin inhibition affect the import of nuclear-encoded proteins into plant mitochondria. Plant J. 2009;58(4):694-705.

Chakrabarti G, McClane BA.The importance of calcium influx, calpain and calmodulin for the activation of CaCo-2 cell death pathways by Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin. Cell Microbiol. 2005;7(1):129-46.

Zheng F, Soellner D, Nunez J, Wang H.The basal level of intracellular calcium gates the activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt signaling by brain-derived neurotrophic factor in cortical neurons. J Neurochem. 2008;106(3):1259-74.

Weiss N.The N-type voltage-gated calcium channel: when a neuron reads a map. J Neurosci. 2008; 28(22):5621-2.

Martin D, Bootman, Llewelyn R, Rodney O, and Michael JB. Intracellular Calcium Signaling, in Handbook of Cell Signaling. Edited by Bradshaw, Ralph A., Dennis Edward A. Elsevier Science (USA). 2003. p51-61.

Brini M, Carafoli E.Calcium pumps in health and disease.Physiol Rev. 2009;89(4):1341-78. Brini M, Calì T, Ottolini D, Carafoli E. The plasma membrane calcium pump in health and disease. FEBS J. febs. 2013.

Riedel MJ, Baczkó I, Searle GJ, Webster N, Fercho M, Jones L, et al.Metabolic regulation of sodium-calcium exchange by intracellular acyl CoAs. EMBO J. 2006;25(19):4605-14.

Yang YC, Fann MJ, Chang WH, Tai LH, Jiang JH, Kao LS.Regulation of sodium-calcium exchanger activity by creatine kinase under energy-compromised conditions. J Biol Chem. 2010;285(36):28275-85.

Higgins ER, Cannell MB, Sneyd J. A buffering SERCA pump in models of calcium dynamics. Biophys J. 2006;91(1):151-63.

Foehring RC, Zhang XF, Lee JC, Callaway JC.Endogenous calcium buffering capacity of substantia nigral dopamine neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2009;102(4):2326-33.

Chinopoulos C, Adam-Vizi V.Calcium, mitochondria and oxidative stress in neuronal pathology. Novel aspects of an enduring theme. FEBS J. 2006;273(3):433-50.

Brisac C, Téoulé F, Autret A, Pelletier I, Colbère-Garapin F, Brenner C, et al.Calcium flux between the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrion contributes to poliovirusinduced apoptosis. J Virol. 2010;84(23):1222635.

Verkhratsky A, Solovyova N. Alterations in the Function of Endoplasmic Reticulum and Neuronal Signalling. Neurophysiology. 2002;34(2-3):112-17.

Verkhratsky, Alexei. Physiology and Pathophysiology of the Calcium Store in the Endoplasmic Reticulum of Neurons. Physiol Rev. 2005;85: 201-79.

Berridge MJ, Lipp Peter and Bootman MD. The versatility and universality of calcium signalling. Nature Reviews. 2000;1:11-21.

Rosenberg SS, Spitzer NC.Calcium signaling in neuronal development. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2011;3(10):a004259.




How to Cite

Kurniawan, S. N. (2015). INTRACELLULAR Ca2+ HOMEOSTASIS. MNJ (Malang Neurology Journal), 1(1), 36–45. Retrieved from