• Nadia Artha Dewi Department of Ophthalmology,Medical Faculty Universitas Brawijaya,Saiful Anwar General Hospital
  • Muhammad Arfan Department of Ophthalmology,Medical Faculty Universitas Brawijaya,Saiful Anwar General Hospital
  • Herisa Rahmasari Department of Ophthalmology,Medical Faculty Universitas Brawijaya,Saiful Anwar General Hospital
  • Mutiara Kristiani Putri Department of Ophthalmology,Medical Faculty Universitas Brawijaya,Saiful Anwar General Hospital
  • Rulli Rosandi Department of Internal Medicine, Medical Faculty Universitas Brawijaya,Saiful Anwar General Hospital
  • Shahdevi Nandar Kurniawan Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty Universitas Brawijaya,Saiful Anwar General Hospital



Neurodegeneration, diabetic retinopathy, neurovascular unit, retinal nerve fiber layer, review


Diabetic retinopathy is major cause of visual impairment and blindness in diabetic patients worldwide. The concept of diabetic retinopathy as vascular disease has established into not only microvascular complication but also neurodegeneration problems. Neurodegeneration plays an important role in pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. In fact, neuroretinal changes in diabetes can take place even before vasculopathy can be clinically detected.  This condition is marked by accelerated loss of neurons due to apoptosis, particularly in the inner retinal layer. The characteristic of neurodegeneration can be detected through retinal imaging and electrodiagnostics. This review is very crucial, because identifying the pathophysiology of diabetic neurodegeneration better, we may be able to provide interventions using the appropriate therapy. We may also be able to utilize these diagnostic tools  for early detections of diabetic retinopathy, thus preventing blindness due to diabetes.

Author Biography

Nadia Artha Dewi, Department of Ophthalmology,Medical Faculty Universitas Brawijaya,Saiful Anwar General Hospital

Department of Ophthalmology


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How to Cite

Dewi, N. A., Arfan, M., Rahmasari, H., Putri, M. K., Rosandi, R., & Kurniawan, S. N. (2022). NEURODEGENERATION AS AN EARLY SIGN OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY. MNJ (Malang Neurology Journal), 8(1), 58–63.