• Omer Oguzturk Department of Psychiatry, Karabuk University, Faculty of Medicine, Karabuk, Turkey
  • Murat Alpua Department of Neurology, Kirikkale University, Faculty of Medicine, Kirikkale, Turkey
  • Ersin Kasim Ulusoy Department of Neurology, Kayseri Training and Research Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey



Attention deficit and hyperactivity, essential tremor


Background: Essential tremor is the most common movement disorder. Ä°n this disease, which is characterized by tremor that increases with action and passes at rest, different accompanying symptoms can also be seen.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms in adults with ET.

Methods: Fifty six essential tremor patients and 56 controls were included in the study. Patients were recruited from outpatient clinic at Kirikkale University Medicine Faculty.  An informed consent form was signed by each patient after detailed information. Institutional ethics committee approval was obtained. Patients’ characteristics such as education level, gender, age and disease duration were recorded. Symptoms of ADHD in patients and controls were determined by using the Adult Report Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder Self Report Scale. Short Form-36 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were also performed. Essential tremor severity was determined by using the Whiget essential tremor scale.

Results: Essential tremor patients had significantly higher rate of Adult Attention Disorder Self-Report Scale Deficit/Hyperactivity scores compared to controls. Scores of Adult Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Self-Report Scale were associated with depression and anxiety scores and physical and mental component scores of Short Form-36 in bivariate analyses. There was a positive correlation between tremor severity and ASRS scores( ASRS A scores= 17,3±5,5, p=0,032, ASRS B scores= 27,7±6,7,p=0,043, ASRS T scores= 45±12,2, p=0,017) however there was no significant statistical relationship between the duration of disease and ASRS scores.

Conclusion: This study showed that ADHD symptoms can be observed in adult essential tremor patients and this may be associated with increased psychosocial morbidity and lowered quality of life in ET patients.


Jankovic J. Essential tremor: a heterogenous disorder. Mov Disord; 2002. 17(4):638-44.

DOI: 10.1002/mds.10221.

Medeiros LM, de Castro PC, Felício AC, et al. Patients with essential tremor can have manual dexterity and attention deficits with no impairments in other cognitive functions. Arq Neuropsiquiatr; 2016. 74(2):122-7. DOI: 10.1590/0004-282X20160006.

Chandran V, Pal PK. Essential tremor: beyond the motor features. Parkinsonism Relat Disord; 2012. 18(5):407-413. DOI:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2011.12.003.

Lafo JA, Jones JD, Okun MS, et al. Memory similarities between essential tremor and Parkinson’s disease: A final common pathway? The Clinical Neuropsychologist; 2015. 29(7), 985–1001.

DOI: 10.1080/13854046.2015.1118553.

Dopheide JA, Pliszka SR. Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder: An update. Pharmacotherapy.2009;29:656–679.

DOI: 10.1592/phco.29.6.656.

Simon V, Czobor P, Balint S, et al. Prevalence and correlates of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: Meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry; 2009. 194:204–211. DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.107.048827.

Kessler RC, Adler LA, Gruber MJ, et al. Validity of the World Health Organization Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener in a representative sample of health plan members. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res; 2007. 16:52-65.

DOI: 10.1002/mpr.208.

Dogan S, Oncu B, Varol–Saracoglu G, et al. Validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1). Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry; 2009. 10:78-87. Avalaible from:

Ware JE, Sherbourne CD. The MOS 36-Item Short-Form Survey (SF-36). I. Conceptual framework and item selection. Med Care; 1992. 30:473–483. Avalaible from:

Bjelland I, Dahl AA, Haug TT, et al. The validity of the hospital anxiety and depression scale. An update literature review. J Psychosom Res; 2002. 52(2):69-77. DOI: 10.1016/s0022-3999(01)00296-3.

Heldman DA, Jankovic J, Vaillancourt DE, et al. Essential tremor quantification during activities of daily living. Parkinsonism Relat D; 2011. 17, 537–542. DOI: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2011.04.017.

Chunling W, Zheng X. Review on clinical update of essential tremor. Neurol Sci; 2016. 37:495–502.

DOI: 10.1007/s10072-015-2380-1.

Lensing MB, Zeiner P, Sandvik L, et al. Quality of life in adults aged 50+ with ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders; 2015. 19, 405-413.

DOI: 10.1177/1087054713480035.

Lin YJ, Yang LK, Gau SS. Psychiatric comorbidities of adults with early- and late-onset attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Aust N Z J Psychiatry.; 2016. 50(6):548-56.

DOI: 10.1177/0004867415609423.

Louis ED, Benito-Leo´n J, Bermejo- Pajera F, Neurological Disorders in Central Spain (NEDICES) Study Group. Selfreported depression and anti-depressant medication use in essential tremor: cross-sectional and prospective analyses in a population-based study. Eur J Neurol; 2007. 14:1138–1146.

DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2007.01923.x.

Chandran V, Pal PK. Quality of life and its determinants in essential tremor. Parkinsonism Rel Disord; 2013. 19(1):62-65.

DOI: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2012.06.011.

Alpua M, Turkel Y, Gunes HN, et al. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults with multiple sclerosis. Int J Ment Health Psychiatry; 2017. 3:3. DOI: 10.4172/2471-4372.1000147.

Duan K, Chen J, Calhoun VD, et al. Neural correlates of cognitive function and symptoms in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults. Neuroimage Clin; 2018. May 2;19:374-383.

DOI: 10.1016/j.nicl.2018.04.035.




How to Cite

Oguzturk, O., Alpua, M., & Ulusoy, E. K. (2021). ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER SYMPTOMS IN ADULTS WITH ESSENTIAL TREMOR. MNJ (Malang Neurology Journal), 8(1), 1–5.



Research Article