Yoke Lian Lau, Chek Kim Loi, Mohd Nor Azan bin Abdullah
  MNJ, pp. 125-128  


Broca's aphasia is a type of aphasia named after the French surgeon Broca. Broca's aphasic patients experienced difficulty in speaking, but they could understand both spoken and written language. There were three essential patients in the historical development of the study of Broca's aphasia. Louis Victor Leborgne (1809–1861) was also known as Monsieur Leborgne or 'Tan' as he could only utter the syllable 'Tan' throughout his 21 years of illness. The second patient was called Lazare Lelong. His language ability was slightly better than Leborgne. He could utter simple syllables, such as oui (yes), non (no), and this (trois or three). The third patient was Gage, a railway company worker. Broca studied similar cases in the following years and planned a brain function localization theory.


Broca's aphasia, Tan, Lelong, History, Development

Full Text:



Mesulam M-M. Primary progressive aphasia. Annals of Neurology; 2001. 49(4):425–32.

DOI: 10.1002/ana.91

Berker EA. Translation of Broca's 1865 Report. Archives of Neurology; 1986. 43(10):1065-72.

DOI: 10.1001/archneur.1986.00520100069017

Cubelli R, Montagna CG. A reappraisal of the controversy of Dax and Broca. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences; 1994. 3(4):215–26.

DOI: 10.1080/09647049409525614

Dronkers NF, Plaisant O, Iba-Zizen MT, Cabanis EA. Paul Broca's historic cases: High-resolution MR imaging of the brains of Leborgne and Lelong. Brain; 2007. 130(5):1432–41. DOI:10.1093/brain/awm042

Finger S. Paul Broca (1824-1880). Journal of Neurology; 2004;251(6). DOI: 10.1007/s00415-004-0456-6

Freemon FR. Paul Broca: Founder of French anthropology, explorer of the brain. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association; 1993. 270(12):1480.

DOI: 10.1001/jama.1993.03510120104043

Buckingham HW. The Marc Dax (1770–1837)/Paul Broca (1824–1880) controversy over priority in science: Left hemisphere specificity for seat of articulate language and for lesions that cause aphemia. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics; 2006. 20(7-8):613–9. DOI: 10.1080/02699200500266703

Lee DA. Paul Broca and the history of aphasia: Roland P. Mackay Award Essay, 1980. Neurology; 1981. 31(5):600–02. DOI: 10.1212/wnl.31.5.600

Stone JL. Paul Broca and the first craniotomy based on cerebral localization. Journal of Neurosurgery; 1991. 75(1):154–9. DOI: 10.3171/jns.1991.75.1.0154

Nishitani N, Schürmann M, Amunts K, Hari R. Broca’s Region: From action to language. Physiology. 2005;20(1):60–9.

DOI: 10.1152/physiol.00043.2004

York GK. Localization of language function in the twentieth century. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences; 2009. 18(3):283–90.

DOI: 10.1080/09647040802025979

Pearce JMS. Broca's aphasiacs. European Neurology; 2009. 61(3):183–9. DOI: 10.1159/000189272

Eling P, Finger S. Franz Joseph Gall on the Cerebellum as the Organ for the Reproductive Drive. Frontiers in Neuroanatomy; 2019. 13.

DOI: 10.3389/fnana.2019.00040

Brown J. Phrenological studies of aphasia before Broca: Broca's aphasia or Gall's aphasia? Brain and Language; 1992;43(3):475–86.


Stookey B. Jean-Baptiste Bouillaud and Ernest Auburtin. JAMA; 1963. 184(13):1024.

DOI: 10.1001/jama.1963.73700260007011

Luzzatti C, Whitaker H. Jean-Baptiste bouillaud, claude-françois lallemand, and the role of the frontal lobe. Archives of Neurology; 2001. 58(7):1157.

DOI: 10.1001/archneur.58.7.1157

Pearce JMS. Louis Pierre Gratiolet (1815–1865): The cerebral lobes and fissures. European Neurology; 2006. 56(4):262–4. DOI: 10.1159/000096679

Signoret J-L, Castaigne P, Lhermitte F, Abelanet R, Lavorel P. Rediscovery of Leborgne's brain: Anatomical description with CT scan. Brain and Language; 1984. 22(2):303–19. DOI:10.1016/0093-934X(84)90096-8

Code C. Did Leborgne have one or two speech automatisms? Journal of the History of the Neurosciences; 2013. 22(3):319–20.

DOI: 10.1080/0964704X.2013.776296

Domanski CW. Mysterious "Monsieur Leborgne": The mystery of the famous patient in the history of neuropsychology is explained. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences; 2013. 22(1):47–52.

DOI: 10.1080/0964704X.2012.667528

Rahmawan FA, Yueniwati Y, Suharsono T. Perception of severity level and decision making of family correlation toward departing interval of patient suffering ischemic stroke. MNJ (Malang Neurology Journal); 2020. 6(2), 63-68. DOI:10.21776/ub.mnj.2020.006.02.3

Macmillan, M. A wonderful journey through skull and brains: The travels of MR. GAGE'S tamping iron. Brain and Cognition; 1986. 5(1):67-107. DOI:10.1016/0278-2626(86)90062-x

Manning L, Thomas-Antérion C. Marc Dax and the discovery of the lateralisation of language in the left cerebral hemisphere. Revue Neurologique; 2011. 167(12):868–72. DOI: 10.1016/j.neurol.2010.10.017

Finger S, Roe D. Gustave Dax and the early history of cerebral dominance. Archives of Neurology; 1996. 53(8):806–13.

DOI: 10.1001/archneur.1996.00550080132021

Finger S, Roe D. Does Gustave Dax deserve to be forgotten? The temporal lobe theory and other contributions of an overlooked figure in the history of language and cerebral dominance. Brain and Language; 1999. 69(1):16–30.

DOI: 10.1006/brln.1999.2040

Roe D, Finger S. Gustave Dax and his fight for recognition: An overlooked chapter in the early history of cerebral dominance*. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences; 1996. 5(3):228–40.

DOI: 10.1080/09647049609525672

Pariama AM, Ranimpi YY, Setiawan A. Subjective well-being and healthy behavior of elderly with dementia alzheimer's (A Phenomenological study). MNJ (Malang Neurology Journal); 2020. 6(2), 82-87. DOI: 10.21776/ub.mnj.2020.006.02.7

Lazar RM, Mohr JP. Revisiting the contributions of Paul Broca to the study of aphasia. Neuropsychology Review; 2011;21(3):236–9. DOI: 10.1007/s11065-011-9176-8

Clower WT, Finger S. Discovering trepanation: The contribution of Paul Broca. Neurosurgery; 2001. 49(6):1417–26. DOI: 10.1097/00006123-200112000-00021


  • There are currently no refbacks.