Annisa Nurul Arofah, Sri Budhi Rianawati, Harun Al Rasyid, Masruroh Rahayu
  MNJ, pp. 46-52  


Background. Despite it is common neurocognitive domain that affected in patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, attention domain is not assessed using International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS), a common screening test to diagnose HIV-associated cognitive disorder. Detection of attention deficit in HIV patient is important as it can maintain the capacity to adherence to antiretroviral therapy and essential to activity daily living. CD4 is one of the markers for severity of HIV infection.
Objective. We aims to correlate between CD4 with IHDS and CD4 with attention performance test, such as forward digit span test (FWD), backward digit span test (BWD), and trail making test A test (TMA).
Methods. This is an analytic study using cross sectional design. 20 respondents are collected for the study using purposive sampling. Data is collected using instrument IHDS, FWD, BWD, and TMA.
Results. Using the correlation of Eta, Eta 2 of CD4 and IHDS, CD4 and FWD, CD4 and BWD, also CD4 and TMA are 0.025, 0.022, 0.022 and 0.011.
Conclusion. We concluded that CD4 have no correlation with test for attention domain and IHDS.


CD4; attention domain; IHDS; HIV

Full Text:



Roos K. Principles of Neurologic Infectious Disease. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc; 2005. p 113-130

Zipursky A, Gogolishvili D, Rueda S, Brunetta J, Carvalhal A. Evaluation of brief screening tools for neurocognitive impairment in HIV/AIDS: a systematic review of the literature. AIDS. 2013;27(5):2385–401

Lindl KA, Marks DR, Kolson DL, Jordan-Sciutto KL. HIV-associated cognitive disorder. Pathogenesis and therapeutic opportunities. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2010;5:294–309

Goodkin K, Hardy DJ, Singh D, Lopez E. Diagnostic Utility of the International HIV Dementia Scale for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Impairment and Disorder in South Africa. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2014;26(4):352–8

Troncoso FT, Conterno L de O. Prevalence of neurocognitive disorders and depression in a Brazilian HIV population. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2015;48(4):390–8

Saini S, Barar K V. Study of some neurocognitive features with respect to CD4 cell count and duration of HAART in HIV/ AIDS patients of art centre of tertiary care hospital in west rajasthan. J Pharm Res. 2014;13(2):57–60

Sacktor N, Wong M, Nakasujja N, Skolasky R, Selnes O, Musisi S, et al. The International HIV Dementia Scale: A new rapid screening test for HIV dementia. AIDS. 2005;19:1367–74

Robertson K, Smurzynski M, Parsons T, Wu K, Bosch R. The prevalence and incidence of neurocognitive impairment in the HAART era. AIDS. 2007;21:1915–21

Watkins CC, Treisman GJ. Cognitive impairment in patients with AIDS-prevalence and severity. 2015;35–47

Levine AJ, Hardy DJ, Barclay TR, Reinhard MJ, Michael M, Hinkin CH. Elements of attention in HIV-infected adults: Evaluation of an existing model. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2008;30(1):53–62

Robertson K, Liner J, Heaton R. Neuropsychological Assessment of HIVInfected Populations in International Settings. Neuropsychol Rev. 2009;19:232–49

Hoffmann C, Rockstroh J, editors. HIV Book 2012/2013. Hamburg: Medizin Fokus Verlag; 2012

Oshinaike OO, Akinbami AA, Ojo OO, Ojini IF, Okubadejo UN, Danesi AM. Comparison of the Minimental State Examination Scale and the International HIV Dementia Scale in Assessing Cognitive Function in Nigerian HIV Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy. AIDS Res Treat [Internet]. 2012 [cited 2016 Jul 29];2012:581531. Available from:

Arora S, De Sousa AA. Plasma viral load, CD4 count and HIV associated dementia. Natl J Med Res. 2013;3(1):13–5

Pokdi Fungsi Luhur. Panduan Pemeriksaan Neurologi dan Neurobehavior. Jakarta: PERDOSSI; 2010

Wilkie F, Eisdorfer C, Feaster D, Morgan R, Fletcher M, Blaney N, et al. Mild Cognitive Impairment and Risk of Mortality in HIV-1 Infection. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1998;10:125–32

Cohen RA, Seider TR, Navia B. HIV effects on age-associated neurocognitive dysfunction: premature cognitive aging or neurodegenerative disease? Alzheimers Res Ther. 2015;7(37)

Harahap, H., & Rianawati, S. The Profile of Cognitive Function of Patients HIV/AIDS in Dr. Saiful Anwar Malang Hospital. Malang Neurology Journal, 1(1), (2015). 1-6. doi:

Sun X, Zhang X, Chen X, Zhang P, Bao M, Zhang D, et al. Age-dependent brain activation during forward and backward digit recall revealed by fMRI. Neuroimage. 2005;26:36–47

Vossel S, Geng JJ, Fink GR. Dorsal and Ventral Attention Systems: Distinct Neural Circuits but Collaborative Roles. Neurosci. 2014;20(2):150–9

DeVaughn S, Müller-Oehring EM, Markey B, Brontë-Stewart HM, Schulte T. Aging with HIV-1 Infection: Motor Functions, Cognition, and Attention – A Comparison with Parkinson’s Disease. Neuropsychol Rev. 2015;25(4):424–38

Singh D, Joska JA, Goodkin K, Lopez E, Myer L, Paul RH, et al. Normative scores for a brief neuropsychological battery for the detection of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) among South Africans. BMC Res Notes. 2010;3(28)

Sánchez-Cubillo I, Periáñez JA, Adrover-Roig D, Rodríguez-Sánchez JM, Ríos-Lago M, Tirapu J, et al. Construct validity of the Trail Making Test: role of task-switching, working memory, inhibition/interference control, and visuomotor abilities. J Int Neuropsychol Soc [Internet]. 2009 May [cited 2016 Jul 29];15(3):438–50. Available from:

Salthouse TA. What cognitive abilities are involved in trail-making performance? Intelligence. 2011;39(4):222–32

Widyastuti, Adnyana O, Sudewi R. Angka CD4 nadir dan current rendah sebagai faktor risiko gangguan kognitif pada penderita HIV di RSUP Sanglah Denpasar. Neurona. 2012;29(3)


  • There are currently no refbacks.