DIAGNOSTIC TEST OF TORONTO AND MODIFIED TORONTO SCORING, MONOFILAMENT TEST, AND VIBRATE SENSATION TEST USING 128 HZ TUNING FORK FOR DIABETIC POLYNEUROPATHY

Bethasiwi Purbasari, Vivi Laras Anggraini, Made Dinda Pratiwi, Machlusil Husna, Shahdevi Nandar Kurniawan
  MNJ, pp. 25-34  

Abstract


Background. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has been epidemically increasing throughout all the world population, and diabetic polyneuropathy (PNP-DM) is one of the most common neurologic manifestation of this disease. Clinical research has proved that effective bedside screening of PNP-DM can significantly reduce the incidence of foot ulcer and limb amputation.
Objective. To measure the diagnostic test of polyneuropathy scoring, monofilament 10-g SemmesWeinstein test, and 128 Hz tuning fork test as an early detection measure for PNP-DM.
Methods. This research was conducted using a cross sectional approach from Januari 2016 to Juli 2017.
Results. Among the total study population of 43 (23 men and 20 woman), Modified Toronto Score has the highest sensitivity (100%), PPV (93%) and accuracy (93%). Toronto score has the highest NPV (9%).
Conclusion. Modified Toronto Score has good diagnostic value as screening tool in PNP-DM.


Keywords


diabetic polyneuropathy; Toronto score; modified Toronto score; monofilament Semmes-Weinstein 10 g; 128 Hz tuning fork

Full Text:

PDF

References


Pasnoor M, Dimachkie MM, Kluding P, Barohn RJ. D i a b e t i c N e u ro p a t h y Pa r t 1 Overview and Symmetric Phenotypes. Neurol Clin. 2013;31:425–45.

Dyck P.H., Kratz K.M., Karnes J.L. et al. The prevalence by staged severity of various types of diabetic neuropathy, retinopathy, and nephropathy in a population-based cohort: the Rochester Diabetic Neuropathy Study. Neurology. 1993;43:817–24.

Dyck P.J. MLJ. Clinical features of the diabetic neuropathies: Epidemiology. In: Dyck PJ, Thomas PK, Asbury AK et al, editor. Diabetic neuropathy. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 1987. p. 27–35.

Facts F, Diabetes ON. National Diabetes Fact Sheet , 2011. 2011; Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2011

Pirart J. Diabetes mellitus and its degenerative complications: a prospective study of 4,400 patients observed between 1947 and 1973. Diabetes Care. 1978;1(3):168–88, 252–63.

Veves A, Malik RA. Pathogenesis of Human Diabetic Neuropathy. In: Diabetic Neuropathy: Clinical Management. Totowa, New Jersey: Humana Press Inc.; 2007. p. 231–8.

Jayaprakash, P., Bhansali, A., Bhansali, S., Dutta, R.P., Anantharaman, R., Shanmugasundar, G., and Ravikiran M. Validation of Bedside Methods in Evaluation of Diabetic Periferal Neuropathy. Indian J Med Res. 2011;(133):645–9.

Armstrong DG, Lipsky BA. Preventing Foot Ulcers in Patients With Diabetes. JAMA. 2015;293(2):217–28.

Bril V., Perkins BA. Validation of the Toronto Clinical Scoring System for Diabetic Polyneuropathy. Diabetes Care. 2002;25(11):2048–52.

Bril V, Tomioka S, Buchanan RA, Perkins BA, Group S. Original Article : Complications Reliability and validity of the modified Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Score in diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy. Diabet Med.

;26:240–6.

Craig, B.A., Strauss M.B., Daniller, A., Miller SS. Foot Sensation Testing in the Patient With Diabetes: Introduction of the Quick & Easy Assessment Tool. Wound. 2013;26(8):221–31.

Meijer, J.W.G., Smit, A.J., Lefrandt, J.D., Van Der Hoeven, J.H., Hoogenberg, K., dan Links TP. Back to Basics in Diagnosing Diabetic

Polyneuropathy With the Tuning Fork. Diabetes Care. 2005;28(9):2201–5.

J.D. E. Distal symmetric polyneuropathy: A definition for clinical research. Report of the American Academy of Neurology, the American Association of Electrodiagnostic Medicine, and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Neurology. 2005;64(January):113–23.

Preston D., Shapiro BE. Electromyography and Neuromuscular Disorders: ClinicalElectrophysiologic

Correlations. Third edit. Elsevier Ltd; 2013.

Bashar K. Electromyography in clinical practice : a case study approach. second edi. Elsevier Inc.; 2007.

Azhary H, Farooq MU, Bhanushali M, Majid A, Kassab MY. Diabetic Neuropathy. In: Peripheral Neuropathy: Differential Diagnosis and Management. Boca Raton: Taylor dan Francis Group; 2010. p. 887–92.

Chiles NS, Phillips CL, Volpato S, Bandinelli S, Ferrucci L, Guralnik JM, et al. Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications Diabetes, peripheral neuropathy , and lower-extremity function ☆. J Diabetes Complications

[Internet]. 2014;28(1):91–5. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2013.08.007

Zilliox LA, Ruby SK, Singh S, Zhan M, Russell JW. Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications Clinical neuropathy scales in neuropathy

associated with impaired glucose tolerance,. J Diabetes Complications [Internet]. 2015; Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2015.01.

Bril, V., Hirose, T., Tomioka, S., and Buchanan R. Ranirestat for the Management of Diabetic Sensorimotor Polyneuropathy. Diabetes Care.

;32:1256–60.

Perkins B.A., Olaleye D., Zinman B. et al. Simple screening tests for peripheral neuropathy in the diabetes clinic. Diabetes Care. 2001;24:250–6.

Cheung BMY, Li C. Diabetes and Hypertension: Is There a Common Metabolic Pathway ? 2012;160–6.

Snow K. Foot Sensation Testing in the Patient with Diabetes: Introducing of Quick & Easy Assesment Tool. Wounds. 2014;26(8):221–31.

Snow K. Evaluation of An Overview. Waltham: Neurometrix; 2012.

Armstrong DG, Lipsky BA. Preventing Foot Ulcers. J Am Med Assoc. 2015;293(2):217–28.

Perkins BA, Olaleye D, Zinman B, Bril V. Simple Screening Tests for Peripheral Neuropathy in the Diabetes Clinic. Diabetes Care. 2001;24(2):250–6.

Baraz S, Zarea K, Shahbazian H, Latifi S. Comparison of the accuracy of monofilament testing at various points of feet in peripheral diabetic neuropathy screening. J Diabetes Metab Disord. 2014;13(1):19.

Smieja M, Hunt DL, Edelman D, Etchells E, Cornuz J, Simel DL. Clinical Examination for the Detection of Protective Sensation in the Feet of Diabetic Patients for the International Cooperative Group for Clinical Examination Research. J GEN INTERN MED. 1999;14:418–24.

Katirji B, Koontz D. Disorders of Peripheral Nerves. In: Bradleys’s Neurology in Clinical Practice. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2012.

Baba M, Ozaki I. Electrophysiological changes in diabetic neuropathy: from subclinical alterations to disabling abnormalities. Arch Physiol Biochem. 2001;109(3):234–40.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.